May 31, 2009

Epidemic Influenza

By Oliver Wen & Alan Lin

Influenza/ˎɪnflu′enzə / [uncountable]

►an infectious disease that is like a very bad cold

►= flu

►a common illness that makes you feel very tired and weak, gives you a sore throat, and makes you cough and have to clear your nose a lot

--Steven's still in bed with flu.

--She's got the flu.

--I couldn't go because I had flu.

--Flu shots are recommended for people 55 and older.

Flu Types

˙There are three basic types of flu viruses: A, B, and C.

˙Influenza A is divided into subtypes based upon two proteins found on the virus itself: hemagglutinin [ˌhiməˈglutənən] (H, 紅血球凝集素) and the neuraminidase [ˌnjurəˈmɪˌdes ] (N, 神經胺酸水解酶). The flu pandemic of 1918 was a type A flu.

˙A-type influenza affects both animals and humans.

˙B-types affect only humans.

˙C-types result in mild respiratory(呼吸的) illnesses and are not believed to cause flu outbreaks.

˙A and B cause the majority of the flu seen today, although there is a C type, which is much less severe.

Subtypes of flu A viruses

˙H1N1 (Swine flu)
˙H5N1 (Bird flu)

New H1N1 Flu

˙This new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs.
˙It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and avian(鳥類的) genes and human genes.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / [countable]

►a large number of cases of a disease that happen at the same time

--50 to 100 million people died during the flu epidemic of 1918.

--An epidemic of hepatitis (肝炎)is terrible.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / [countable]

►a sudden increase in the number of times that something bad happens

--The recent epidemic of car thefts has been blamed on bored teenagers.

Epidemic /ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk / adjective [only before noun]

►of disease or anything resembling a disease

--The epidemic disease could be wiped out.

►attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population at the same time

--Epidemic Influenza A H1N1 Spreads in 20 Countries.

--Violent crime is reaching epidemic proportions in some cities.

--Buying goods on the installment plan has become epidemic in recent years.

►= epidemical

Epidemical/ɛpəˈdɛmɪkl/ adjective

--The swine flu is epidemical, and its symptom is similar to influenza.


►the study of the way diseases spread, and how to control them

--Epidemiology is the compulsory credit of medical students.


--The epidemiologist who is the representative of Taiwan suffered a protest abruptly.

Epidemiological/ˈɛpɪˌdimɪrˈlɑdʒɪkl/ adjective

--Recently, the HINI flu has become an outbreak in Japan, however, the domestic epidemiological experts were resentful about the quarantine and efforts of Japan.

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